Nuclear Applications

Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen and Heavy Water (D2O) contains two atoms of Deuterium (D) and one atom of oxygen. This is also known as Deuterium Oxide. Deuterium is double the mass of hydrogen due to presence of an extra neutron in its nucleus. Deuterium is present in hydrogen and hydrogen bearing compounds like water, hydrocarbons, etc. and has a small natural occurrence of about 140 to 160 ppm (D/D+H).

HWB has developed, demonstrated, optimized and deployed the complex production technology of Heavy Water using H2S-H2O Bithermal process and NH3-H2 Monothermal process to produce Nuclear grade Heavy Water by extracting and enriching deuterium from low concentration natural feed stock in large quantities.

Nuclear Grade Heavy Water is used as a moderator and coolant in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). India is the largest producer of Heavy Water in the world and is not only meeting Heavy Water requirements for the Indian Nuclear Power Program but is also exporting to various countries

Parameter Units Product Quality

Isotopic content of Deuterium

Mass percent

99.82 to 99.85 (Nuclear Grade)
99.86 to 99.94 (Special Grade)


µS/cm at 25°C


Chemical Oxygen Demand, KMnO4 consumption

Mg/ KmnO4  / kg D2O





Chloride content



Contact us
Director (Operations)
Heavy Water Board
Department of Atomic Energy
5th Floor, Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan,
Anushaktinagar, Mumbai-400094
Email :

Last updated on: 08-May-2019